How Long Should a Dissertation or Thesis Introduction Be? What considerations did you have to balance? Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper.
If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit. List page numbers of all figures.
All the themes and issues that you raised in your introduction must be referred to again in one way or another. Implicit in this section is the notion that you are required to make an original contribution to research, and you are, in fact, telling the reader what makes your research study unique.
This is your opportunity to show that you have understood the significance of your findings and that you are capable of applying theory in an independent manner. You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary your work, of course.
In a conclusion, you will usually want to use the present perfect e. Well done!
Calculations where more than pages. Nature, The best strategy is to pick a project that you are interested in, but also that a faculty member or other professional is working on. Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order.
The abstract needs to appeal to a wide audience, and so making it understandable to this wider audience is absolutely essential to your success. The introduction should include: The background for your choice of theme A discussion of your research question or thesis statement A schematic outline of the remainder of your thesis The sections below discuss each of these elements in turn.
For example: What geographical area are you investigating? You also do not need to describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, or list all different kinds of validity and reliability. What you must do is to show how your choice of design and research method is suited to answering your research question s.
Paradoxically, the more you limit the scope, the more interesting it becomes.
We want you to answer a scientific question or hypothesis. Figures should be oriented vertically, is an expository essay written in first person portrait mode, wherever possible.
The final section in the paper is a recommendation section. Acknowledgments Advisor s and anyone who helped you: technically including materials, supplies financially for example, departmental support, travel grants References cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own if you make a statement, back it up with your own data or a reference all references cited in the text must be listed cite single-author references by the surname of the author followed by date of the publication in parenthesis This section is not about persuading, you are simply informing the reader of the summary of your findings.
Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp. But it is also important to have read enough theory to know what to look for when collecting data. In a PhD thesis you may like to indicate some potential for post-doctoral work.
The research question s are formulated. In some instances, you may also be asked to include a few keywords. Conversely, if your study is based on the rock record, people studying modem analogs. What is the significance of the present results: why should we care?
Unfortunately, it may still prove a little too short or long as far as those guidelines are concerned, in which case some creative editing may be required, but guidelines can often be flexible when the research demands it, so do be sure to discuss the matter with your mentors and examiners before finalising your introduction. In writing the background information, one to two pages is plenty.
Summary and foreword Most readers will turn first to the summary or abstract. There are additional bits and pieces that you may choose to add. The results indicate that potential donors are more receptive to images portraying a large social distance and a small temporal distance.
In a dissertation or thesis, there is likely to be a longer section on the limitations of your research. Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots. Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software?
Hutner, editorAcademic Press, New York, It often makes sense to put the outline at the end of the introduction, but this rule is not set in stone. While you might write the sections on different days or even different months, it all has to look like one continuous flow. In order to achieve this, you need to explicitly tell the reader what makes your research special.
You are going to want to begin outlining your background section by identifying crucial pieces of your topic that the reader needs to know from the outset.
It is important to cross check your conscious memory against your citations. But why?
The main purpose of using theory is to analyse and interpret your data. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations.