Criteria air pollutant estimates are also critical at the project level to satisfy environmental review under NEPA as well as General Conformity e. NAAQS values typically are the maximum av- erage level of ambient concentration acceptable under the law; in some cases, states may set more stringent standards or include other pollutants than those listed here.
Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world. Lastly, the Conceptual Model includes the spatial and temporal allocation of emissions.
For example, if you study involves issues of race, ethnicity or religion, you would be concerned how your race, ethnicity or religion being different from your subjects influence interactions with them. Description of your research design needs to have enough detail to eliminate assumptions of the need to ask questions by someone who want to adopt or adapt your research design.
Example of a problem statement: "The frequency of job layoffs is creating fear, anxiety, and a loss of productivity in middle management workers. The Conceptual Model does not address economic activity directly, but rather uses economic activity to forecast freight activity.
More accurate determination of aux- iliary power would improve emission calculations.
The diversity of CHE types in use is related to the diversity of freight handled. Keep the wording of your research questions consistent throughout the document. Role of Review of Literature The role of literature review is as follows: 1 It will increase your confidence in your topic as a result of the time, effort, and resources you invested in studying your research problem; 2 It can give you new ideas and approaches that may not have occurred to you; 3 It can inform you about other researchers doing work in your area of studyindividuals whom you may choose to contact for advice or feedback; 4 It can show you how others have tackled methodological and design issues in studies similar to your own; 5 It can lead you to sources of data that you may not have known existed; 6 It can orient you to measurement tools that other researchers have write academic papers and used effectively; 7 It can reveal methods dealing with problem situations that may be similar to difficulties you are 3 having; and 8 It can help you get meaning out of your data or make sense of phd thesis presentation findings and, eventually, help you tie your results to the work of previous researchers.
Tell the reader how you chose the informants for your study - Usually, 'purposive sampling' is used because the informants are available, convenient and most importantly represent characteristics you want to study Silverman, Each of these areas will improve both the Conceptual Model and modeling of these modes in general.
While the population can usually be defined by a single statement, the sampling procedure needs to be described in extensive detail.
For example, stud- ies of health impacts of diesel exhaust rely heavily on freight emissions estimates. Cite from textbooks and articles on qualitative methods by the greats such as Guba, Lincoln, Creswell, Merriam, Patton, Charmaz and others. Pretesting a survey is a good way to increase the likelihood of face validity.
Mass transfer and power consumption characteristics in rotating fibrous bed bioreactor for xanthan gum fermentation. There are no statistical tests to measure validity.
As such, this section does not review the uncertainties in any given model or the uncertainties in any other parameter input to these models, but rather on the emissions-relevant model parameters and processes. It looks at the underlying theories or constructs that explain a phenomena.
Title of Figure 2 in Chapter 3 Table 3. Do not repeat in tedious prose what it is obvious for a knowledgeable peer to see at a glance. Each research question will usually require its own analysis. Emissions estimates are often reported as is, without fur- ther processing.
Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology.
Describe the theoretical constructs that the survey is attempting to measure. Include it if your paper uses special terms that are unique to your field of inquiry or that might not be understood by the general reader.
There are three basic methods to test reliability : test-retest, equivalent form, and internal consistency. Thus, determining emissions from container terminal CHE is important in any land-side emission inventory.
The two most important factors to characterize the rel- evance of a parameter in the context of this study are the im- pact on final emissions and the level of uncertainty in the parameter estimates. Some applications require a point estimate to be compared to an absolute threshold e. Dispersion models are used for project analysis when there are concerns about air pollution hot spots, partic- ularly regarding PM and CO.
Structured research questionnaires will be formulated to measure basic financial literacy on three contracts, namely, interest and loans rates, inflation, risk awareness in investment.
One method of establishing face validity is described here. The introduction often contains dramatic and general statements about the need for the study. Show compliance with protection of human subjects as required by your respective institution A paragraph must be inserted that states the study is deemed to be one of minimal risk to participants and that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research will not be greater than any ordinarily encountered in daily life, or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests.
The emission outputs will be as- sociated with either a product or quantity of a given com- modityfreight activity e.
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Note that there are several ways of writing Chapter 3 and the following is a suggestion on the sub-sections to include. For a regional approach, such as that done by the California 10 Air Resources Board CARB to estimate California marine vessel emissions, a similar approach is taken where emissions at the major California ports are estimated and then added together.
Sulfur dioxide SO2and 6. GHG inventories also report emissions estimates without further processing. Think of this part as the 'warm up' for the full discussion of your data collection strategy.
Title of Figure 1 in Chapter 3 This section presents the data collected from the study on this major aspect of your research problem, followed by extensive comments on or interpretation of the findings of the study. Use specific names, places, times, etc. Del tech creative writing technique known as confirmatory factor analysis is often used to explore how individual survey items contribute to an overall construct measurement.
Do not attempt to explain the results in this chapter. Some sources may be represented as point sources e.
It is usually quite long and primarily depends upon how much research has previously been done in the area you are planning to investigate. The dissertation advisor usually has an opinion about the level of detail needed in this chapter. Two general categories of methods are used to estimate CHE emissions.
It is important to report the descriptive statistics of the sample because it lets the reader decide if the sample is truly representative of the population. There are inherent errors in applying that law to all ships and speed ranges.
Population and sampling The basic research paradigm is: 1 Define the population 2 Draw a representative sample from the population 3 Do the research on the sample 4 Infer your results from the sample back to the population As you can see, it all begins with a precise definition of the population. As a result, the examination of accuracy and uncertainty was done mostly on a qualitative basis, identifying strengths and weaknesses of methods and models, as well as evaluating the parameters that have the largest impact on final emissions and highest uncertainty relative to others.
Functions of the Review of Literature It serves three important functions: 1 It continues the process started in the introduction of giving the readers background information needed to understand your study; 2 It assures the readers that you are knowledgeable about the significant research that has been done in your area of investigation; and 3 It establishes your study as one link in a chain of research that is developing and enlarging knowledge in your field of research interest.
The uncertainty analysis of heavy-duty trucks also included an evaluation of the most important input parameters to emis- sion calculations. Nitrogen dioxide NO25. The uncertainty analysis of rail also included an evaluation of the most important input parameters to emission calcula- tions.
Don't omit any details. Examples are: "The population for this study is defined as all adult customers who make a purchase in our stores during the sampling time frame", or " EPA currently has implemented programs to reduce emis- sions of HAPs, 4 however 1, total HAPs are listed help with creating a cover letter 4 EPA as related to mobile source emissions 5 and of these, are components of diesel exhaust, including benzene, cadmium, formaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene.
Each has a specific definition depending on which species is included in the group but, in general, all are involved in reac- tions with NOx to form ozone. In other words, if you are using several survey items to measure a more global construct e.
Is there a significant relationship between It follows the same format as the abstract of your study as a whole. The most obvious is that the sample represents the population. FAA requires the use of the model in performing air quality analyses for aviation sources.