San Francisco Edit, ; Writing Conclusions. Conclusion The dissertation conclusion should concisely answer the main research question, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of your central argument.
Presentation of quantitative data Presentation of quantitative data can be equally as challenging as the presentation of qualitative data, but for very different reasons. Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use.
If in doubt, discuss this with your supervisor before you start writing. For the second part, mention your findings the what and, especially, your conclusion the so what — that is, the interpretation of your findings ; if appropriate, end with perspectives, as in the Conclusion section of your paper.
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Be wary, however, of common mistakes students tend to make when including these in their dissertation writing. But having a good understanding of why you are proceeding with this strategy of analysis is going to be essential in a primarily quantitative study.
Rather, show what your findings mean to readers. There is no correct or incorrect number of graphs that should exist within the section, but results discussion conclusion chapters should use your judgement about what looks appropriate.
Finding this balance is important. Subheadings are ultimately going to be your friend throughout your dissertation writing. Do this, for example, by highlighting key findings in your analysis or result section or by noting important or unexpected implications applied to practice.
What does previous literature say, and do your results agree? This section should be written in the present tense. We realise that it is going to be a difficult process to pick and choose pieces of data to include. Once completed, you can begin to relax slightly: you are on to the last stages of writing!
Instead, focus on what you have found and, especially, on what your findings mean. If you include perspectives, clarify whether you are referring to firm plans for yourself and your colleagues "In the coming months, we will. Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues In the introduction, your task was to move from the general [the field of study] to the specific [the research problem].
What would it look like? But this can be a challenge. The introduction The introduction reproduced here exhibits the four components that readers find useful as they begin to read a paper. With a few clicks and keyboard taps, a beautiful graph, figure or table can appear in your document.
List the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a brief description or definition. Before you worry about the discussion chapter too much, consider whether you need to treat the discussion as a separate section at all.
In the Introduction section, state the motivation for the work presented in your paper and prepare readers for the structure of the paper. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul.
Second, they move the more detailed, less important parts of the body to the end of the paper in one or more appendices so that these parts do not stand in the readers' way.
Accordingly, you can think of an abstract as having two distinct parts — motivation and outcome — even if it is typeset as a single paragraph. Finished your dissertation? You must set up the examples you have chosen in a clear and coherent way.
What might make the machine break? By the end, the reader should understand the what, why and how of your research.
The most important result is the one that answers your research question. Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but thesis paper sample format single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer.
Linking to previous chapters Presentation of your analysis is going to be one of the more challenging things that you have to undertake. Make recommendations You might already have made recommendations for future research in the discussion, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings for theory and practice.
In a sense, it should be the least specialized part of the paper. It is always beneficial to have a second set of eyes assess your work for any errors or omissions. If you are not sure which results are the most important, go back to your research question and start from there.
If you are feeling anxious about the discussion section rest assured you are not alone. Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change.
General Rules The function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument. For example, if you have completed a qualitative research project, you might have identified some key themes within the software program you used to organise your data.
But you need to pull examples from both of these sections in order to make the points that you need to. This brings us to our next student mistake — trying to do too much within one section. These parts usually appear in the discussion and ask you to employ your critical thinking skills to demonstrate how your research fits into the bigger picture.
Not all of this can possibly appear in your dissertation without completely overwhelming the reader.
Some strategies to achieve this include: Returning to your problem statement to explain how your research helps solve the problem. University College Writing Centre. Critical thinking It is difficult to put into words how important the critical thinking element is to your discussion chapter.
A problem statement is basically a statement that illustrates a clear vision and the overall method that will be used to solve the problem at hand. Solution-bias stifles the creativity that arises while brainstorming a solution, which may result in a less-than-optimal experience for the user.
Referring back to the literature review and showing how you have addressed a gap in knowledge. Results discussion conclusion chapters tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits. This should be no more than one paragraph. To save time creating the reference list and make sure your citations are correctly and consistently formatted, you can use our free APA Citation Generator.
If you feel you must explain recent achievements in much detail — say, in more than one or two paragraphs — consider moving the details to a section titled State of the art or something similar after the Introduction, but do provide a brief idea of the actual situation in the Introduction. Information contained in this section will highlight the finer details of writing up your findings and discussion sections.
Many writers confuse the information they should include in their discussion with the information they should place in their conclusion. Presentation of qualitative data Qualitative data largely encompass longer and more detailed responses. The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review.
As you progress within this chapter, everything you write is going to results discussion conclusion chapters value and make a contribution to the overall field of knowledge. So avoid this at all times. You need to tell them what they need to know right from the beginning. Based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of donation intention in response to campaign materials, it can be concluded that social distance and temporal distance are important factors to consider when designing and targeting campaigns.
A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research.
Finally, read through the whole document again to make sure your dissertation is clearly written and free from language errors. If you use a standard or usual procedure, mention that upfront, too.
In a dissertation that set out to make a theoretical argument based on an analysis of case studies, it might begin like this: By analysing changing representations of migration and UK border policy in the past ten years, this dissertation has shown how media discourse can directly and indirectly shape political decision-making. Most writing guides recommend listing the findings of your study in decreasing order of their importance.